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解读新公民法案

6月26日,移民局官网发布了6篇关于加强公民法的文章,旨在表明公民法的修改意图,并宣扬这次改革可能带来的预期。但是,新的公民法真的如文章所说,是为了加快审批程序,打击申请造假,保护加拿大公民的权益吗?如果真是这样,为什么新公民法的通过会在华人社区引发强烈不满?6月27号,移民局官网发布了一篇名为“Strengthening Canadian Citizenship Act: A comparative before and after view of the changes to the Citizenship Act”的文章,通过对比新旧法案条款,可以让我们进一步看清新法案的真面目。以下我对新旧法案的对比逐条翻译,希望能帮助大家加深理解。

旧法案

新法案

•Residence for three out of four years (1,095 days); 4年内住满3年(1,095天)

•No requirement that resident be physically present; 不要求实际居住在加拿大

•Time as a non-permanent resident (non-PR) may be counted toward residence for citizenship; 成为永久居民之前的居住时间也可以折算在等待成为公民的期限内

•No intent to reside provision没有“居住意向”条款

•Requires physical presence for four years (1,460 days) out of the six years; 6年内住满4年(1,460天)

•183 days minimum of physical presence per year in four out of six years;要求每年实际居住在加拿大不少于183天

•Eliminates use of time spent in Canada as a non-permanent resident (non-PR); 成为永久居民之前的居住时间不再折算为等待成为公民的期限的一部分

•Introduces “intent to reside” provision引入“居住意向”条款

•Adult applicants aged 18–54 must meet language requirements and pass knowledge test; upper age limit of 54 currently established by policy, not in legislation; 18到54岁的成年申请人必须满足语言要求并通过入籍考试;54岁的年龄上限是由政策设定,而不是立法

•Applicants can meet knowledge requirement with assistance of an interpreter申请人可以在翻译人员的帮助下完成入籍考试

•Requires applicants aged 14–64 to meet language requirements and pass knowledge test; 14到64岁的申请人必须满足语言要求并通过入籍考试

•Applicants must meet knowledge requirement in English or French申请人必须用英语或法语完成入籍考试

•Most “Lost Canadians” had their citizenship restored in 2009, but some were not covered by that change and are not eligible for citizenship大多数”或有公民身份”的人在2009年被给予了身份,但在那时没有被给予的将不再有资格申请成为公民

•Extends citizenship to “Lost Canadians” born before 1947 as well as their 1st generation children born abroad在1947年以前出生的“或有公民身份”的人和他们的出生在海外的下一代将被给予公民身份

•Bars getting citizenship from people with domestic criminal charges and convictions

在加拿大境内有犯罪指认或已定罪的被禁止成为公民

•Expands bar on getting citizenship to people with foreign criminal charges and convictions

无论加拿大境内境外,只要被指认犯罪或定罪的都被禁止成为公民

•Consultants not required to be registered or regulated in order to represent individuals in citizenship manner; 代理入籍申请的顾问可以是没有注册的或非受监管的

•Few tools to deter fraud and ensure program integrity; 很少有办法能制止身份欺诈并保证程序的公正性

•Fines and penalties for fraud are a maximum of $1,000 and/or one year in prison对身份欺诈的处罚最多$1,000罚金且/或监禁一年

•Defines who is an authorized representative and provides authority to develop regulations to designate a regulatory body whose members would be authorized to act as consultants in citizenship matters; 只有律师和ICCRC成员才可以代理入籍申请

•Authority to refuse applicant for fraud; fines and penalties for fraud are a maximum $100,000 and/or five years in prison对于由于身份欺诈不授予公民身份给予权威性解释;对身份欺诈的处罚最多$10,000罚金且/或监禁五年

•Governor in Council (GIC) final decision maker for citizenship revocation公民权的撤销由GIC做最后裁定

•Gives Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) Minister authority to decide on routine revocation cases移民部部长有权决定一般的公民权撤销案件

•Complex revocation cases such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, security, other  human or international rights violations, and organized criminality decided by the Federal Court复杂的公民权撤销案件由联邦法院裁决

•GIC final decision maker on discretionary grants of citizenship对公民身份赋予的裁量是由GIC做最终决定

•Gives CIC Minister the authority to decide on discretionary grants of citizenship对公民身份赋予的裁量是由移民部长做最终决定

•Limited authority to define what constitutes a complete application对于完整申请的定义缺乏权威性解释

•Establishes authority to define what constitutes a complete application and what evidence applicants must provide对于完整申请的定义以及申请人必须提供的证明建立了权威性解释

•Citizenship grant is a three-step decision-making process公民身份的授予分为三个步骤

•Changes citizenship grant to a single-step process that reduces duplication and improves processing times公民身份的授予减少为仅一个步骤,从而减少冗余提高审批效率

•No requirement to file Canadian income taxes to be eligible for a grant of citizenship申请入籍不要求加拿大的报税记录

•Requires adult applicants to file Canadian income taxes, as required under the Income Tax Act, to be eligible for citizenship申请入籍的成年人必须有加拿大的报税记录

•No authority to revoke citizenship for acts against Canada’s national interest对于损害加拿大国家利益的行为撤销公民身份缺少权威性解释

•Establishes the authority to revoke Canadian citizenship from dual citizens and deny it to PRs who were members of an armed force or an organized armed group engaged in armed conflict with Canada对于那些曾经是与加拿大有武装冲突的有组织武装力量的成员,他们的公民身份被撤销,或已经移民但被拒绝申请入籍的情况都给予了权威性解释

•Authority to revoke Canadian citizenship and deny it to PRs who are convicted of terrorism, high treason, treason, or spying offences, depending on the sentence received对于那些曾经是恐怖分子,叛国分子或间谍,他们的公民身份被撤销,或已经移民但被拒绝申请入籍的情况都给予了权威性解释

•No fast-track mechanism for citizenship for members of the military to honour their service to the Canadian Armed Forces and address deployment challenges对于因服务于加拿大军队并且完成调度指令而获荣誉的军事成员,没有开设获得公民身份的快速通道

•Creates a fast-track mechanism for citizenship for PRs serving with—and individuals on exchange with— the Canadian Armed Forces to honour their service to Canada对于因服务于加拿大军队并且完成调度指令而获荣誉的军事成员(永久居民),特别开设了获得公民身份的快速通道

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