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C-6入籍法案經批生效,入籍由住6滿4改為住5滿3

  經過在議會1年多的辯論和投票,修改公民法案的C-6法案在參眾兩院獲得通過,並於2017年6月19日正式收到皇室批准開始生效。本文將會選擇重要的點並總結前公民法(Previous Citizenship Act)與C-6修正後的公民法案(Citizenship Act with Bill C-6 AmendmentsC-6)對加拿大公民的影響。
  最大的改變是舊法要求入籍需要在申請前的6年在加拿大居住滿4年,而新法只要求申請前5年住滿3年(1095天)。同時新法規定在申請人成為永久居民之前的居住時間可以折半計算,而舊法沒有此條款。
  舊法要求申請人申請加拿大公民身份時打算永久居住在加拿大,新法不再對此有要求。
 

Changes that take effect immediately upon Royal Assent on June 19, 2017
立刻生效的改變
Previous Citizenship Act
舊公民法
Citizenship Act with Bill C-6 Amendments
C-6修正後的公民法
Citizenship could be revoked from dual citizens convicted of treason, spying and terrorism offences, depending on the sentence received, or who were a part of an armed force of a country or organized group engaged in conflict with Canada.
如被認定以下罪行,具有雙重國籍的公民可能會被取消國籍:
A 叛國、從事間諜或恐怖行動,根據判決結果決定;
B 武裝部隊成員或有組織的團體成員,與加拿大發生衝突。
This provision is repealed. Dual citizens living in Canada who are convicted of these crimes will face the Canadian justice system, like other Canadian citizens who break the law.
本條被推翻。居住在加拿大境內的雙重國籍公民從事這些犯罪活動,將會走加拿大司法程序,與其他犯法加拿大公民同等。
Applicants were required to intend to continue to live in Canada if granted citizenship.
申請人被要求表明成為公民後,將繼續居住在加拿大。
This provision is repealed. Applicants are no longer required to intend to continue to live in Canada once granted citizenship. This provides more flexibility to Canadians who may need to live outside of Canada for work or personal reasons.
本條被推翻。申請人不再被要求表明成為公民後,將繼續居住在加拿大。這給因工作和私人原因,可能居住在加拿大以外的加拿大公民提供了選擇空間。
The Minister had the discretion to waive certain requirements under subsection 5(1) of the Citizenship Act so a minor could obtain citizenship without a Canadian parent.
移民部長有酌處權為某個未成年免除公民法第五章第一條的某些要求,該未成年不必由父母親陪同入籍,獨自入籍。
Minors can now apply for citizenship without a Canadian parent, as the age requirement for citizenship has been removed under subsection 5(1). A person having custody of the minor or empowered to act on their behalf by court order, written agreement or operation of law, can now apply for citizenship on behalf of the minor, unless that requirement is waived by the Minister.
未成年申請人可不由父母親陪同,獨自入籍,因為第五章第一條中對年齡的要求已經去掉。未成年的監護人或法庭批准的監護人,可以代表該未成年做申請,除非移民部長免除該要求。
No provision existed to prevent individuals serving a sentence in the community (a conditional sentence order) from being granted citizenship, taking the Oath of Citizenship or counting this time towards meeting the physical presence requirements for citizenship.
正在社區服刑的緩刑犯,可被批准入籍、進行入籍宣誓,計算入籍居住義務。
Individuals serving a conditional sentence will not be granted citizenship, take the Oath of Citizenship, or be able to count this time towards meeting the physical presence requirements for citizenship.
正在服刑的緩刑犯不能被批准入籍、進行入籍宣誓或計算入籍居住義務。
The Minister has the discretion to grant citizenship to a person to alleviate cases of special and unusual hardship, or to reward services of an exceptional value to Canada.
移民部長可以因某申請人有特殊苦難或對加拿大有卓越貢獻,酌情被批准入籍。
Statelessness has been added as a stand-alone ground that can be considered for a discretionary grant of citizenship.
無國籍狀態可被看做獨立的情況,酌情被批准入籍。
The Department has reasonable measures to accommodate the needs of citizenship applicants. However, there was no explicit reference to accommodate persons with disabilities in the Citizenship Act.
移民部可以合理滿足申請人的需求,但是公民法中沒有針對殘疾人的條款。
The requirement to take into consideration reasonable measures to accommodate the needs of a citizenship applicant who is a disabled person is now included in the Citizenship Act.
加入了針對殘疾人的條款。
The requirement for applicants to maintain the requirements for citizenship from the time they apply for citizenship until taking the Oath of Citizenship only applied to applications received on or after June 11, 2015.
自提交申請到進行入籍宣誓期間,申請人必須持續滿足入籍要求,本條僅適用於15年6月11號當天或之後收到的申請。
This requirement now also applies to all applications, including those received before June 11, 2015.
本條也適用於15年6月11日前收到的申請。
Changes expected to take effect in fall 2017
2017年秋季預計的改變
Previous Citizenship Act
舊公民法
Citizenship Act with Bill C-6 Amendments
C-6修正後的公民法
Applicants had to be physically present in Canada for four out of six years before applying for citizenship.
在申請入籍前,申請人必須滿足在加拿大六年內住滿四年。
Applicants must be physically present in Canada for three out of five years before applying for citizenship.
在申請入籍前,申請人必須滿足在加拿大五年內住滿三年。
Applicants had to file Canadian income taxes, if required to do so under the Income Tax Act, for four out of six years, matching the physical presence requirement.
根據所得稅法,申請人須提交六年內四年的報稅記錄,與居住義務時長匹配。
Applicants must file Canadian income taxes, if required to do so under the Income Tax Act, for three out of five years, matching the new physical presence requirement.
根據所得稅法,申請人須提交五年內三年的報稅記錄,與居住義務時長匹配。
Applicants had to be physically present in Canada for 183 days in four out of the six years preceding their application.
申請人須滿足,六年內的四年中,在加拿大住滿183天。
This provision is repealed. Applicants no longer have to meet this requirement.
本條已經被推翻。申請人不必滿足此條件。
Time spent in Canada prior to becoming a permanent resident did not count towards the physical presence requirement for citizenship.
成為永久居民前在加拿大停留的時間,不能被計算在入籍居住義務內。
Applicants may count each day they were physically present in Canada as a temporary resident or protected person before becoming a permanent resident as a half-day toward meeting the physical presence requirement for citizenship, up to a maximum credit of 365 days.
成為永久居民前,以臨時居民身份或者被庇護者身份在加拿大停留的時間可折半計算入入籍居住義務內,最多365天。
Applicants between 14 and 64 years had to meet the language and knowledge requirements for citizenship.
14至64周歲的申請人須達到入籍的語言要求。
Applicants between 18 and 54 years must meet the language and knowledge requirements for citizenship.
18至54周歲的申請人須達到入籍的語言要求。
Changes expected to take effect in early 2018
2018年初預計的改變
Previous Citizenship Act
舊公民法
Citizenship Act with Bill C-6 Amendments
C-6修正後的公民法
The Minister was the decision-maker for most cases of citizenship revocation on the grounds of false representation, fraud, or knowingly concealing material circumstances. The Federal Court was the decision-maker for citizenship revocation cases involving false representation, fraud, or knowingly concealing material circumstances related to security, human or international right violations, and organized criminality.
大多數因虛假陳述,欺詐或故意隱瞞重要情況被取消公民身份的決定,由移民部長做出。因虛假陳述,欺詐或故意隱瞞重要情況,且涉及國家安全、人權或國際侵權行為或有組織犯罪,被取消公民身份的決定,由聯邦法院做出。
The Federal Court is the decision-maker in all revocation cases, unless the individual requests that the Minister make the decision.
聯邦法院負責所有的取消公民案件,除非該公民要求移民部長做決定。
There was no clear authority for Citizenship Officers to seize fraudulent or suspected fraudulent documents provided under the Citizenship Act.
公民法沒有明確授權入籍官查獲虛假或疑似虛假的文件。
Clear authority for Citizenship Officers to seize fraudulent or suspected fraudulent documents is provided under the Citizenship Act.
公民法明確授權入籍官查獲虛假或疑似虛假的文件。

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